51st (2nd Yorkshire, West Riding) Regiment
Records and Badges makes no reference to the service
of the 51st in Canada or between the years of 1844 and
Links: 51st Foot
52nd (Oxfordshire) (Light Infantry) Regiment
1818 - 1864
The 52nd remained at home during the period of the
Seven Years' War, and down to 1765, when it went to
Canada, and was there some years. In 1774 it was at
Boston and on 17th June, 1775, it was much distinguished
and suffered heavy loss at the battle of Bunker's Hill
- the casualties among the "hatmen" of the
regiment being many, and the grenadiers having every
officer and man, save eight, either killed or wounded.
The regiment was actively employed in the American campaigns
of 1776-8 ; but its ranks being sorely thinned, was
brought home in 1779.
In 1803, the 52nd was made a light infantry regiment.
All men considered unfit for light infantry duties were
transferred to the second battalion, which was formed
into a separate corps as the 96th Foot. This corps served
many years in the West Indies and North America. They
were disbanded in 1816.
From 1823 to 1831 the 52nd did duty in New Brunswick
and Nova Scotia. In 1836 it went to Gibraltar, and thence
in 1838 to Barbados, remaining in the West Indies and
North America until 1848.
Links: 52nd Foot
53rd (Shropshire) Regiment of Foot
1855 - 1869
In 1776 the 53rd were among the reinforcements sent
out to Canada. Its flank companies were with Burgoyne
at Saratoga, but the rest of the regiment was left behind
in Canada, where it stayed until 1787.
The 53rd again went abroad in 1866. It served in Canada
until the withdrawal of Line regiments from the Dominion.
Links: 53rd Foot
54th (West Norfolk) Regiment of Foot
1765 - 1800, 1804 - 1851, 1858
The regiment was actively employed in America at New
York, Charlestown, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and elsewhere
during the War of Independence. After the peace it was
a good many years in New Brunswick, at which time the
well-known William Cobbett, M.P., was regimental sergeant-major.
From 1845 to 1854 the 54th was stationed at Gibraltar,
in the West Indies, and Canada.
55th (Westmoreland) Regiment of Foot
The original warrant for the formation of this regiment
was dated 31st December , 1755. About eighteen months
after its formation the regiment left Cork with the
troops under General Hopson, destined for an attack
on Cape Breton. But the enterprise was abandoned for
that year, and the troops wintered in Nova Scotia. Next
year the 55th served in the attack on Ticonderoga, a
splendid example of stubborn but fruitless valour, in
which the Black Watch and the 55th bore a prominent
part, long remembered north of the Tweed.
The 55th went next to Niagara with General Prideaux,
and took part in the repulse of a force of 1,800 French
regulars and 500 Indians, which attempted the relief
of the fort. The 55th was employed in various subsequent
operations in connection with the conquest of the Canada's,
and was detained in the country some years after the
At the beginning of the American War of Independence
the regiment was again in America, and fought at Long
Island, Brandywine, Germantown, and other early conflicts.
In 1778 it was among the troops sent from New York to
the West Indies.
56th (West Essex) Regiment of Foot
1840 - 1854
In 1840 the regiment was in Quebec and employed on
the frontier during the Maine Boundary dispute. It returned
home in 1842.
57th (West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot
1815 - 1859
In 1775, the 57th embarked from Ireland for America,
with the reinforcements under Lord Cornwallis, and during
the greater part of the American War was stationed at
New York, whence it despatched on various minor expeditions
during that unhappy struggle. The light company formed
part of the 2nd Battalion of Light Infantry, and served
under Cornwallis in Carolina and Virginia, down to the
surrender at York Town. In 1783 the regiment removed
to Nova Scotia, and there remained until 1790.
From the south of France the 57th went to America,
and was stationed in upper Canada during the American
War of 1814-15. It returned home from Canada in August,
58th (Rutlandshire) Regiment of Foot
1814 - 1816, 1849
The regiment went to Ireland in 1757, and the year
after embarked for America, where it fought at the siege
and capture of Louisburg, and at Quebec under Wolfe.
It was also at the winter defence of Quebec by Murray,
and the advance on Montreal, where the surrender of
De Vaudreuil's troops on 12th September, 1760, just
one year after the death of Wolfe, completed the conquest
of the Canada's. It was stationed for a time on the
Lakes, and in 1762 formed part of the forces under Major-General
Burton, despatched from. New York to assist in the Havana
Expedition. After Cuba was restored to Spain, the regiment
returned to Ireland.
In 1813 it went from the east coast of Spain to Montreal,
where it took part in the unsuccessful expedition against
Plattsburg, on Lake Erie. The battalion returned to
Europe too late for Waterloo.
59th (2nd Nottinghamshire) Regiment of Foot
The 59th (Montague's) went to America, and served some
years there and in Newfoundland. It was in America at
the commencement of the War of Independence, and was
present at the battle of Bunker's Hill, 17th June, 1775,
but, like some other regiments had long been stationed
in that country, was sent home to recruit soon afterwards.
60th (Royal American) Regiment of Foot
1787 - 1870
This famous regiment was raised at New York and Philadelphia
under an order dated 24th December, 1755, by the Earl
of Loudoun, then commanding the forces in British North
America. As described by the Regimental Historian, Colonel
Wallace, it combined the functions of a Colonial Corps
with that of a Foreign Legion, and in consequence a
special Act of Parliament (29 Geo. ll., c. 5) had to
be passed, authorizing the Crown to grant commissions
to foreigners in it, to serve in America only. It was
at first styled the 62nd, or Royal American Regiment
of Foot. In February, 1757, it was re-numbered, and
then became the 60th (Royal American) Regiment of Foot,
a title it retained until 1824. The uniform was scarlet
with dark blue facings, the officers wearing silver,
and the men white lace, with two blue stripes. The regiment
had four battalions, each with a grenadier company;
but at first there appears to have been only one light
company in the whole regiment, which was organised in
1759. The four battalions bore a prominent part in the
American campaigns of 1756-63, particularly the 2nd
Battalion (now 1st Battalion) and the 3rd Battalion
(afterwards disbanded). These battalions served at the
siege of Louisburg, Cape Breton, and with Wolfe at Quebec.
Their grenadiers were also employed in the operations
subsequent to the fall of Wolfe, ending with the capture
of Montreal and conquest of Canada. The third battalion
like-wise served at the capture of Martinique in 1761,
at the conquest of Havana in 1762, and in Florida. It
was disbanded after the peace of 1763, as also was the
fourth battalion, which had served at the capture of
Fort Niagara and at Montreal. The two surviving battalions
continued to serve in America until 1775. During the
American War of Independence the regiment was chiefly
in the West Indies. It was augmented at this time by
new third and fourth battalions, which were disbanded
in 1783 The third and fourth battalions were raised
once more at Chatham in 1787, also from foreigners,
who at that time could be legally enlisted into the
60th Foot without express authority under the Act of
Parliament already quoted. The four battalions of the
regiment continued to serve in the West Indies and North
America. Rifles are said to have been first issued to
part of the regiment, probably the first battalion,
in 1794, but this point is doubtful.
At the end of 1797 - the year in which the Duke of
York became colonel in-chief - it was decided to increase
the forces in America, and another Act of Parliament
(38 Geo. III., c. 13) was passed authorizing the Crown
"to augment His Majesty's 60th Regiment of Infantry
by the addition of a Fifth Battalion," to serve
in America only, and to consist of foreigners. This
battalion, the first green-coated rifle battalion in
the Army, was organised under the command of Lieut-Colonel
Baron de Rottenburg, of Hompesch's Corps. It was formed
of 17 officers and 300 men from Hompesch's Chasseurs,
and was dressed in bottle-green cut-away coats with
scarlet facings, white waistcoats, blue pantaloons,
with black leather helmets and black belts. This fifth
or "Jager" battalion served in Ireland in
1798 during the Rebellion, and then proceeded to the
West Indies, where, in June, 1799, it received 33 officers
and 600 men from Lowenstein's Chasseurs, another regiment
of foreigners, at the capture of Surinam in 1791 and
afterwards in South and North America. In 1804 an Act
was passed authorizing 10,000 foreign troops to serve
in England, and the 5th Battalion was brought home in
consequence in 1806. It went to Portugal in June, 1808,
and from the opening skirmish at Obidos, on 15th August,
two days before the battle of Roleia or Rolica down
to the end of the war, took part in Wellington's campaigns
in Portugal, Spain and the South of France. After the
peace, this battalion was disbanded, and some 400 of
the men were drafted into the second (now first) battalion.
A sixth and seventh battalion, also formed of Germans,
part light infantry and part rifles, and also dressed
in green, were raised in 1799, another Act of Parliament
(39 Geo. Ill., c. 104) being passed for this purpose.
The Sixth battalion served under the Duke of York in
Holland and in the West Indies. An eighth battalion
was afterwards formed, a further Act (54 Geo. III.,
c. 12) being passed, which permitted the 60th to serve
in any place or country out of Great Britain, and orders
were issued to raise a ninth and a tenth battalion,
which, we believe, were never completed. The services
of the several battalions during the period 1802-15
extended to Goree and the Gambia, the Cape, Ireland,
and the Channel Islands (legally not part of Great Britain),
besides the Peninsula, the West Indies, and North America.
After the peace of 1815 all the battalions except the
second and third were disbanded. The surviving battalions
wore scarlet until 1818, when the green, with scarlet
facings, of the disbanded rifle battalion, was adopted
as the uniform of the regiment.
In 1824 the title of "Royal American Regiment"
was discontinued, the foreigners were drafted out of
it, and the corps, now reduced to two battalions, was
directed to style itself the 60th (Duke of York's Rifle
Corps and Light Infantry), one battalion being equipped
as rifles and the other as light infantry, but both
dressed in green. This was altered to 60th (Duke of
York's Own Rifle Corps), which title was changed in
1830 to 60th (King's Royal Rifle Corps).
1st BATTALION, formerly 2nd BATTALION.
Raised as the Second Battalion on the first formation
of the regiment in 1755. Fought at the siege of Louisburg
and under Wolfe at Quebec. In North America 1760 to
1775. In the West Indies during the American War of
Independence. In North America and the West Indies 1787
to 1800; in the West Indies 1801-07. Landed with the
force under Sir David Baird at Corunna in October, 1808,
and served in Spain until 17th January, 1809. Returned
to the West Indies in 1809. Grenadier company present
at the capture of Guadeloupe in 1810. In the West Indies
and North America until 1818, when the remains of the
5th Battalion, by which the Peninsula honours were won,
were drafted into it. Re-numbered as The First Battalion
in 1818, the old First Battalion being then disbanded.
In 1824 all foreign officers and men were drafted out
of it and left in Canada, and the battalion was, brought
to England for the first time after an almost uninterrupted
service in America and the West Indies of over seventy
Went to Malta in 1866, and the year after to North
America. Served in the Red River Expedition. The battalion
returned from Nova Scotia in 1871 and remained at home
until 1891 when it proceeded to India. It is the only
survivor of the battalions raised one hundred and thirty-two
2nd BATTALION, late a 3rd BATTALION of the REGIMENT.
This, one of several Third Battalions the regiment
has bad, was raised in 1787, and after long service
in the West Indies was re-formed in the Channel Islands
in 1807 and sent back to the West Indies. Served at
the capture of Martinique in 1809. In the West Indies
and Nova Scotia until 1818. Re-numbered as the Second
Battalion in 1818. Served in Nova Scotia, Newfoundland,
Bermuda, and West Indies until 1829. In 1830 the same
procedure as that adopted in the case of the 1st Battalion
in 1824 was followed, and the battalion was brought
to England and placed on the same footing as other Regiments
of the Line. Served at Malta, Gibraltar, and in the
Greek Islands, 1835 to 1840; in the West Indies, 1841
to 1844; in North America, 1845 to 1847.
This, the latest of several successive Fourth Battalions,
was raised at Winchester in July, 1857. It embarked
with other reinforcements for North America in the Great
Eastern, at the time of the Trent* difficulty, and remained
in that country until 1861 when it came home from Nova
61st (South Gloucestershire) Regiment of Foot
1865 - 1870
The regiment served in Bermuda and Nova Scotia, from
1866 to 1872.
62nd (Wiltshire) Regiment of Foot
1814 - 1865
In 1813 the regiment went from the south of France
to America, and was employed on the American Lakes during
the war of 1814-15 and in the Atlantic region. The battalion
returned to Europe too late for Waterloo.
The 62nd went to Nova Scotia in 1857 and served in
North America until 1864, when it came home from Quebec.
63rd (The West Suffolk) Regiment of Foot
1841 - 1866
The 63rd was among the reinforcements sent to America
in the spring of 1776, and fought at the battle of Long
Island and the capture of New York. It was in the expedition
to Philadelphia, and fought it Brandywine and Germantown.
Subsequently it served under Lord Cornwallis in Georgia
and Carolina, where some companies were mounted and
employed as dragoons. The 63rd was not with the force
which surrendered at York Town, being at the time with
Lord Rawdon in South Carolina, where it had fought bravely
at the battle of Entaw Springs on the 8th September,
1781. It left South Carolina, in the spring of 1782,
with the fleet of 300 vessels which carried away the
troops remaining in Carolina after Cornwallis's surrender,
together with 15,000 loyalists and slaves seeking new
homes. The 63rd went to the West Indies, and from whence
it returned home after the peace of 1783.
After the evacuation of the Crimea, in 1855, the 63rd
went to Nova Scotia, and remained in America until 1865.
64th (2nd Staffordshire) Regiment of Foot
1813 - 1866
The regiment was stationed at Boston and at Halifax,
Nova Scotia, for several years before the American War
of Independence, in the earlier campaigns of which,
in 1776-9, under Howe and Clinton, it bore an active
part. It was at the siege of Charleston in 1780, and
formed part of the garrison of that place after its
surrender. Subsequently it was with Lord Rawdon at the
relief of Fort Ninety-Six and the battle of Entaw Springs.
When Carolina was abandoned by the troops and loyalists,
the 64th went to Jamaica, where it remained from 1782
In 1813 the regiment went to Nova Scotia, whence it
embarked for England, 24th May, 1815.
In 1840, it went to Nova Scotia, where it was quartered
The soldierlike conduct and high discipline of the
64th, which had been conspicuous during its stay at
Halifax, and which formed the subject of a special address
from the municipal authorities on its departure, received
striking illustration during the homeward voyage. The
main body of the regiment left Halifax in July, 1842,
and in due course arrived safely at Plymouth. But the
hired barque Alert, having on board a detachment of
ten companies under Captain Draper, struck on a rock
about 100 miles south-east of Halifax, and began to
fill so rapidly that there was barely time to run her
on a small uninhabited island, to save the lives of
those on board. The natural impulse of all was to reach
the upper deck, but the master declared 'that the transfer
of such a weight (200 people) from below - would cause
the ship to labour so that she would probably founder.
This was explained to the men by their officers, and
Officers and men stood silent and firm in their ranks
below, the water slowly rising the while from their
ankles to above their knees, until the vessel was beached.
All on board, including many women and children, were
then taken off without loss of life. In a Horse Guards
circular, addressed to officers commanding regiments,
the Duke of Wellington, then Commander-in-Chief, directed
that the details should be communicated to the troops,
in order that Captain Draper's exemplary conduct should
be appreciated as it deserved by every officer and soldier
in the Army, and that the advantage of discipline and
subordination under trying circumstances might be fully
65th (2nd Yorkshire, North Riding) Regiment of Foot
1790 - 1841
In 1769, the regiment went to America, and was one
of the regiments engaged at Bunker's Hill on the memorable
17th June, 1775. Soon after it returned home.
After being at home in 1823, the 65th served in the
West Indies, Demerara and Canada until August, 1841,
when it returned home. Three companies of 65th arrived
in Upper Canada in December 1838.
66th (Berkshire) Regiment of Foot
1827 - 1860
At the outbreak of the French Revolutionary War the
regiment was in Nova Scotia, whence it removed in 1798
to Newfoundland, and there remained until the Peace
of Amiens, when it came home.
In 1827 it proceeded to Canada, and stayed there fourteen
years, during which it was actively employed in Lower
Canada during the rebellion in 1838-9. From 1845 to
1848 it was stationed at Gibraltar, and from 1848 to
1851 in Barbados. It was in North America during the
67th (South Hampshire) Regiment of Foot
1840 - 1855
From 1833 to 1842 the 67th did duty at Gibraltar, in
Demerara and Berbice, Barbados and Canada.
68th (Durham) (Light Infantry) Regiment of Foot
1818 - 1845
The regiment was in the Ionian Islands during the Greek
War of Independence and afterwards in Canada, whence
it returned home in 1829. From 1834 to 1837 it was again
in North America.
Links: 68th Foot
69th (South Lincolnshire) Regiment of Foot
1853 - 1870
The 69th served at the famous siege of Belle Isle in
1761, and was afterwards stationed in America, at Gibraltar,
and in Ireland, at various periods during the next 20
From 1839 to 1842 it served in North America.
The 69th was shipped to Canada in 1867 after the first
Fenian raids (Irish veterans in the U.S. attempting
to liberate Canada from the British Empire). All was
quiet until 1870 when the Fenian leader launched a couple
of raids from his base in Vermont across the border
into Quebec. The 69th was based at Huntingdon at the
time. One company of the 69th and seven companies of
Canadian Militia advanced on the Fenian position and
routed them back across the border. Three Fenians were
killed; there were no British/Canadian casualties. The
Regiment served in Canada and at Bermuda and Gibraltar
until 1879, when it came home once more.
70th (Surrey) Regiment of Foot
1814 - 1843
During the American War of Independence, from 1778
to 1782, the regiment was in Nova Scotia.
The regiment left Stirling Castle for Ireland in July,
1813, and immediately afterwards was sent to Canada.
It was stationed in upper Canada during the war, 1813-14,
and part of it appears to have been engaged in the expedition
to Plattsburg, although the circumstance is not mentioned
in the published records of the corps. It remained in
Canada until 1828, when it returned home again.
The 70th served at Gibraltar, Malta, in the West Indies,
and Canada, from 1834 to 1843.
71st (Highland) Regiment of Foot
1824 - 1865
The 71st (Highland) Regiment of Foot, or "Fraser's
Highlanders," of 1777-84. This fine regiment, of
two battalions, was raised by Lieutenant-General Simon
Fraser, Master of Lovat, who had raised the famous old
78th, or Fraser's Highlanders, of 1756-63,and commanded
that regiment at Louisburg and Quebec, and who died
in 1782. Many officers and men of the old "Fraser's"
joined the 71st, which was formed at Glasgow, and saw
much arduous service in America during the War of Independence.
The regiment served under Lord Cornwallis in the Carolinas
and Virginia, and the greater part was included in the
surrender at Yorktown, 17th October, 1781. These troops
were detained in America until the peace, when they
returned home, and tile regiment was disbanded.
The Second 71st (Highland) Regiment of Foot of 1782-4.
This battalion, of which the Earl of Balcarres was lieutenant-colonel
commandant, was formed out of the portions of the 71st
Highlanders not included in the surrender at Yorktown.
It was disbanded at the peace of 1783, when the place
of the 71st Foot remained vacant for a while.
The last 71st regiment to be formed served in Canada
from 1824 to 1832; being based at Quebec from 1824 to
1825 and in 1827, at Three Rivers and at Sorel in 1825,
at Isle-aux-Noix in 1827, at St John's in 1827, at Kingston
and Couteau de Lac in 1828, at Grand River, at Amherstburg,
at Fort Henry, Kingston and at Niagara in 1829, in Toronto
in 1830-31, and back at Quebec in 1831. The regiment
then moved to Bermuda from 1832 to 1834, when it returned
home. August 1838, detachment of 71st Regiment sent
to Brockville to prevent quarrels by political factions.
In 1842 a second or, as it was called, "reserve"
battalion was formed and sent to Canada, where it served
Links: 71st Foot
72nd (Duke of Albany's Own Highlanders) Regiment of
From 1851 to 1854 the regiment served in Nova Scotia.
73rd (Perthshire) Regiment of Foot
1809 - 1841
In 1838 the regiment was sent to Nova Scotia, and thence,
in 1839 to Canada. In 1841 it returned home. In December
1838 the 73rd arrived in Upper Canada and was sent to
74th (Highlanders) Regiment of Foot
1818 - 1828, 1841 - 1847
The 74th (Highland) Regiment of Foot, or "Argyle
Highlanders" of 1777-83 was raised by Colonel John
Campbell, of Barbrick, a veteran of the old 78th, or
Fraser Highlanders, of 1756-63. It served in Nova Scotia
during the American War, and was distinguished by its
defence of Penobscot against an American squadron under
Commodore Saltanstat. The flank companies were employed
in Carolina. The regiment was disbanded in 1783.
The next 74th regiment embarked for Canada, in 1818,
and served in different parts of North America, in Newfoundland,
and Bermuda until 1830. It went abroad again in 1834,
and served in the West Indies, Canada, and Nova Scotia
Links: 74th Foot
75th (Stirlingshire) Regiment of Foot
"Records and Badges" does not mention the
75th in Canada.
76th Regiment of Foot
1821 - 1857
The 76th (Highland) Regiment of Foot existed from 1777-84.
This regiment was raised by Lord Macdonald, in the Highlands
and Isles, in 1777. It was sent to the relief of Jersey
when that Island was attacked by the French, and subsequently
to America, where it served under Lord Cornwallis during
the latter part of his campaign in North Carolina down
to the surrender at York Town. During the campaign 400
of the Highlanders were horsed in rough-and-ready fashion
- bridles and saddles being scarcer than steeds - and
sent forward as mounted infantry. The Macdonald Highlanders
were disbanded at Stirling Castle in 1784.
A different 76th left the south of France after 1813
and went to Canada, and was employed in the unsuccessful
expedition to Plattsburg, on Lake Champlain, in September,
1814, after which it served for thirteen years in Canada,
returning home in 1827.
The battalion since served in the Mediterranean, the
West Indies, and Canada from 1834 to 1843; and in North
America from 1848 to 1857.
77th (East Middlesex) (Duke of Cambridge's Own) Regiment
1846 - 1856
Raised in 1756, the 77th was speedily shipped off to
America, where it served in the second expedition (1758)
against Fort Du Quesne on the Ohio, and in many other
enterprises against the French and Indians in the American
wilderness during that adventurous time. After the peace
of 1763 the regiment was disbanded, the officers and
men who desired them receiving grants of land in America.
A later 77th went abroad again in 1837, and served
in the Mediterranean, West Indies and North America
until 1848, when it went home.
78th (Highlanders) (Ross-Shire Buffs) Regiment of
1822 - 1869
The Old 78th (Highland) Regiment of Foot, or "Fraser
Highlanders" of 1756-64.
This old corps stands in the unique position, numerically,
of being a common ancestor to two distinct regiments
now united into one. The following is a short notice
of its origin and career. It was raised by Simon Fraser,
Master of Lovat, son of Simon, 9th Lord Lovat, who was
executed in 1746 for complicity in the Rebellion. Fraser,
an undergraduate at the University of St. Andrews, had
left his studies by his father's desire to head the
Fraser Clan when it followed Prince Charles Stuart into
the field. He received the royal pardon and was subsequently
called to the Scottish Bar. On the outbreak of the Seven
Years' War, Fraser, who had refused tempting offers
to enter the French Army, proposed to raise a regiment
of Highlanders for the British service, an offer accepted
by the elder Pitt. The corps was at first known as the,
2nd Highland Battalion, but was speedily brought into
the Line as the 78th (Highland) Regiment of Foot, and
was sent off, in thirteen companies, each of 105 rank-and-file,
to America. The regiment, we are told, wore full highland
garb, the men carrying backswords and dirks besides
their regulation arms; but there appears to be no record
of the regimental facings and tartan. General Wolfe,
in a letter to Lord George Sackville, speaks of the
men of the regiment as, "very useful, serviceable
soldiers, and commanded by the most manly lot of officers
1 have, ever seen." The regiment won fame at Louisburg
and under Wolfe at Montmorenci and Quebec. It was subsequently
at the defence of Quebec and in the expedition against
Montreal, which resulted in the final conquest of the
Canada's. It remained in Canada until 1762, when it
was sent with a small expeditionary force to re-take
St. John's, Newfoundland, which had been captured by
the French. The regiment was disbanded at the peace
of 1763, large numbers of the officers and men receiving
grants of land in America.
The later regiment went to Gibraltar in 1865, and served
in that garrison and in Canada and Nova Scotia until
1871, when it returned home.
79th (Highland) (Cameronian Volunteers) Regiment of
1821 - 1851
The 1st battalion proceeded in July, 1814, to Ireland,
where it embarked with reinforcements for America; but
being twice driven back by stress of weather, it was
ultimately sent to Belgium.
The 79th Highlanders served in Canada a single battalion
corps from 1825 to 1832 and again from 1848 to 1852.
This included Montreal (1828), Fort Henry, Kingston
(1830-31), York (now Toronto) Ontario (1832-33) and
80th (Staffordshire Volunteers) Regiment of Foot
The first 80th regiment was the "Light-armed"
Foot of 1758-64, raised for service in America by Colonel
(afterwards General) the Hon. Thomas Gage, under a warrant
dated 5th May, 1758. It consisted of five companies
of extra strength, the men of which had a lighter equipment
than usual, and had the barrels of their firelocks cut
short like carbines, and browned.
In Captain Knox's Historical Memoirs (London, 1769)
will be found some details of the services of the Light-armed
Foot in the various enterprises which led to the conquest
of the Canada's, fuller particulars of which must be
sought in the pages of Warburton and Parkman. The regiment
was broken up in Canada some time after the peace of
Next came the 80th (Royal Edinburgh Volunteers) Regiment
of Foot, of `778-84, one of the "loyalty"
regiments, the cost of raising which was defrayed by
public subscription during the American War of Independence.
It was raised in Edinburgh, did good service in America
under Lord Cornwallis, and was disbanded after the peace
The third 80th was formed in September, 1793. This
regiment would be the one referred to in the National
Archives but there is no mention of it being in Canada
in Records and Badges.
81st (Loyal Lincoln Volunteers) Regiment of Foot
1814 - 1865
The 81st arrived in Canada in 1814.
In 1821 the 81st, embarked for Jamaica, and served
in that island, Nova Scotia, and Bermuda until 1831,
when it returned home. It embarked again for foreign
service in 1836, and was stationed in North America
82nd (Prince of Wales's Volunteers) Regiment of Foot
1814 - 1867
The 82nd (Hamilton) Regiment existed from 1779-83. It
was raised in the Scottish Lowlands, at the private
cost of the Duke of Hamilton, during the American War
of Independence. The uniform was red faced with black.
Lieutenant-General Sir John Moore obtained his company
in the regiment, with which he served in America. The
flank companies were lost on the coast of New Jersey;
and the regiment, after serving in Nova Scotia and Antigua,
was disbanded in 1784.
The next 82nd was raised under a letter of service
dated 27th September, 1793. In 1813, from the south
of France it went to America and fought at the battle
of Lundy's Lane (Niagara) and in other affairs on the
Niagara frontier during the campaign of 1814. In June,
1815, the battalion left Canada.
The 82nd served from 1843-47 in Canada.
83rd (County of Dublin) Regiment of Foot
1803 - 1843
The 83rd (Royal Glasgow Volunteers) Regiment of Foot
of 1778-83 served in New York, after 1781, and was disbanded
The regiment was in England in 1825 and subsequently
served many years in North America, and was stationed
in Canada during the insurrections of 1838-39. In January
1838 two companies were sent to Upper Canada. 26 February
to 3 March, 1838, Republicans occupy Pelee island, Lake
Erie; routed by regulars of 32nd and 83rd Regiments
and the Essex Militia by 3 March.
84th (York and Lancaster) Regiment of Foot
1846 - 1870
A second 84th Regiment was raised on the outbreak of
the American War of Independence. It was at first known
as the Royal Highland Emigrant Corps, and afterwards
became the 84th (Royal Highland Emigrants Regiment)
of Foot. It consisted of two battalions wearing, full
highland garb, with the beings and regimental tartan
of the Black Watch. The first battalion was raised in
Canada by Colonel Allan MacLean, of the old 114th Royal
Highland Volunteers of 1763, out of the families of
soldiers of the 42nd and old 77th and 78th Highlanders,
who had settled in Canada at the peace of 1763. It defended
Quebec against the Americans under Arnold, and was afterwards
employed on the frontier. The second battalion was raised
in like manner, from settlers in Nova Scotia, and served
there and in Carolina and Virginia. Part of the regiment
surrendered with Lord Cornwallis at York Town, and another
detachment was with Lord Rawdon in Carolina. The battalions
were disbanded in Canada and Nova Scotia, in 1784.
The third 84th served in Nova Scotia in 1870.In October,
1883, it proceeded to Bermuda, with subsequent service
at Bermuda, Nova Scotia, in South Africa, and in India,
where it was in 1899.
85th (Bucks Volunteers) Regiment of Foot
1837 - 1844
An early 85th made its appearance on the rolls during
the American War of Independence. It was raised in 1778.
The greater part of it perished on board the Ville de
Paris three-decker and other French prizes taken in
Rodney's action with the Comte de Grasse, which were
swept away by a cyclone off the banks of Newfoundland,
when homeward bound in 1782. The remnant of the regiment
was disbanded at Dover Castle in 1783.
The 85th, went to America from the South of France
in 1813 (Atlantic region). It was present at the battle
of Bladensburg and capture of Washington, and in the
desperate attempt on New Orleans, where it suffered
heavily. It returned from America in 1814.
The regiment served in North America from 1835 to 1842,
during which time it was one of the regiments despatched
on horse-sleights from New Brunswick to Quebec during
the Canadian Rebellion of 1838-9; and afterwards served
in the West Indies from 1842 to 1845. June 1838, three
companies of 85th Regiment arrived in Upper Canada,
remaining companies arrive in December.
Links: 85th Foot
86th (Leinster) Regiment of Foot
The 86th went to Bermuda in 1880. After serving some
years in Bermuda and Nova Scotia the battalion removed
in 1886 to Gibraltar.
87th (Prince of Wales's Irish) Regiment of Foot
In 1866 the battalion went to Malta, and served in that
island and in Nova Scotia until 1876, when it came home.
88th (Connaught Rangers) Regiment of Foot
1814 - 1897
In 1816, the 88th proceeded to Quebec, and served in
the unsuccessful expedition against Plattsburg, on Lake
Erie. Returning to Europe, it landed at Ostend a month
after the battle of Waterloo.
It served in the Mediterranean, West Indies, and North
America from 1841 to 1851.
89th (Princess Victoria's) Regiment of Foot
1812 - 1852
The 2nd Battalion was employed on the Canadian frontier
during the American War of 1813-14, and fought at the
battle of Lundy’s Lane, and other engagements.
It returned home at the peace, and was disbanded 24th
The 89th went abroad in 1835, and served in the Mediterranean,
West Indies, and North America until 1847.
90th (Perthshire Volunteers) Regiment of Foot
1813 - 1818, 1847
In 1814 the first battalion was removed from the West
Indies to Canada, and was sent up to Montreal, but after
the declaration of Peace with the United Sates was brought
down to Quebec, to embark for Europe, landing in Ostend
in August, 1815.
91st (Argyllshire) Regiment of Foot
"Records and Badges" does not mention the
91st in Canada.
92nd (Gordon Highlanders) Regiment of Foot
1820 - 1848
"Records and Badges" does not mention the
92nd in Canada.
93rd (Sutherland Highlanders) Regiment of Foot
1814 - 1860
The 93rd sailed in 1814 with the expedition against
New Orleans, and in the desperate but unsuccessful attack
on the American position on the left of the Mississippi
lost 3 officers, 2 sergeants, and 58 men killed, and
12 officers, 17 sergeants, 3 drummers, and 348 men wounded.
A second battalion, which had been raised for the regiment
in 1814, did duty in Newfoundland for sixteen months,
and was then brought home and disbanded.
The 93rd was in Canada during the insurrection of 1838,
and served in North America and the West Indies until
1848. 93rd arrived in Upper Canada in December 1838.
94th Regiment of Foot
The 94th (Royal Welsh Volunteers) Regiment of Foot,
of 1760-63, served in America and the West Indies, and
was disbanded after the peace of 1763.
95th Regiment of Foot
The 95th Foot of 1760-3 served in America in 1760-61.
It was disbanded at the peace of 1763.
The 95th Foot of 1816-18 was a originally a second
battalion of the 52nd Foot. In 1803 it was formed into
a separate regiment as the 96th Foot and served in the
West Indies, Bermuda, and North America for many years.
It was disbanded in 1818.
Note: The Rifle Brigade was formed late in the history
of the British Army, in 1800 as "The Rifle Corps"
using men selected from fourteen line infantry regiments
who had particular musketry or tactical skills. In 1802,
the corps was called into the line as the 95th (Rifles)
Regiment of Foot. As such it served throughout the Peninsula
campaigns. It raised a second battalion in at Canterbury
in 1805 and a third battalion in 1809. In recognition
of its brilliant service throughout the Napoleonic Wars,
it was taken out of the line after Waterloo as an independent
corps styled The Rifle Brigade and organised after 1819
as a two battalion corps. That organisation continued
until the Crimean War when two more battalions were
The newly formed 4th Battalion, raised at Winchester
in 1857, embarked for Canada in 1861 and served in North
America (Canada) until 1872.
96th Regiment of Foot
1810 - 1832
A third 96th (Queen's Royal Irish Regiment) Foot raised
in Ireland in 1793, fought in the West Indies in the
early part of the French Revolutionary War, and was
broken up at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1795, when its
remains were drafted into he King's Own and the Royal
The last corps known as the 96th, was raised by general
recruiting in 1824, and embarked for New Brunswick soon
after. It served in North America until 1831 when it
came home. The regiment was at Gibraltar for some mouths
in 1857, and at the time of the "Trent*" difficulty
a wing was despatched from home to Canada, but its services
not being required, it was brought back again.
97th (Earl of Ulster's) Regiment of Foot
1795 - 1854
One 97th regiment served in Bermuda, the West Indies,
and America, including the expedition to Plattsburg
in 1814. It was disbanded in 1818.
A new 97th went abroad in 1841, and served in Gibraltar,
in the Ionian Islands, Jamaica, and in North America
until 1853, when it came home.
In 1873 the 97th went to Jamaica, and served in that
island, in the West Indies, Nova Scotia, and Bermuda,
until 1880, when it was removed from Nova Scotia to
98th (Prince of Wales's) Regiment of Foot
1807 - 1824, 1848
The 98th Foot of 1805-15 was raised in 1805 and served
some years in Bermuda and New Brunswick. It was renumbered
as the 97th in 1815 and disbanded in 1818. It served
in the Atlantic region of Canada from 1814.
99th (Lanarkshire) Regiment of Foot
1811 - 1855
In 1803 a 99th regiment was raised in Ireland, and served
in Bermuda and North America. It was disbanded in 1818.
A regiment raised in 1805 as the 100th Foot was re-numbered
as the 99th. It was stationed for some years in North
America. It served on the Canadian Frontier during the
campaigns of 1813-14 (Atlantic region). It was disbanded
in 1818. It bore on its colours the word NIAGARA.
100th (Prince of Wales's Royal Canadian) Regiment
1805 - 1897
There have been four regiments numbered "100"
in the British Army's infantry of the line over the
The third 100th Regiment (Prince Regent's County of
Dublin Regiment) was raised in 1804 and sent in October
1805 to garrison Canada. Half the regiment was drowned
in a shipwreck off Newfoundland. The remainder served
out the war in Canada, fighting the Americans in the
northern campaign of the "war of 1812". When
the Rifle Brigade was taken out of the numbered line
in 1816 it vacated the number 95, and all the regiments
above it slipped down one digit to fill the gap. Thus
the 100th became the 99th, but all those regiments (95th-104th)
were disbanded in 1817-1818 since they were excess to
Britain's imperial requirements and post-Napoleonic
The fourth regiment was the 100th Regiment of Foot
(Prince of Wales Royal Canadians) a British infantry
regiment raised in 1857 by officers of the Canadian
Volunteers to serve in India in dealing with the Indian
Mutiny. The regiment was embodied on the British Army
establishment and numbered 100 in the infantry of the
line. The full title was the 100th Regiment of Foot
(Prince of Wales's Royal Canadians). The regiment was
recruited in Canada in early 1858 and shipped to Shornecliffe
Camp in England later that year. The battalion remained
in England until 1863 when it proceeded on a tour of
duty in Gibraltar and Malta until 1869, when it returned
to England. In 1877 it proceeded to Bengal, remaining
in India until 1895 when it returned home. For this
service it was awarded the honour "Central India",
worn on its cap badge in the late 19th century. In 1898
the 1st Battalion was despatched to Halifax, Nova Scotia.
This new 100th Regiment inherited the old 100th's sole
battle honour "Niagara" (awarded for all actions
in July-August 1814 in the Niagara peninsula). The new
regiment twenty years later came full circle, becoming
"Irish" -- and was disbanded in 1922 when
Ireland became independent. The first Colours of the
Royal Canadians (with the honour "Niagara")
are in the Parliamentary Library, Ottawa. The second
stand of Colours are in the chapel of the Royal Military
101st (Royal Bengal Fusiliers) Regiment of Foot
1808 - 1809
The 101st (Duke of York’s Irish) Regiment of Foot
was raised in 1806. It served in the West Indies and
on the Canadian frontier during the campaigns of 1813-14.
It was disbanded at Haslar 17th January, 1817.
A later 101st proceeded to Nova Scotia in 1876. It
served in Nova Scotia and Bermuda until 1883, when it
102nd Regiment of Foot
1814 - 1823
The 102nd of 1809 served under the command of General
Sir Charles Napier in Guernsey, Bermuda, and North America
(in Atlantic region from 1814), including the affairs
at Craney’s Island and elsewhere during the American
War of 1814.
103rd Regiment of Foot
1812 - 1819
In 1809 a 103rd served on the Canadian frontier during
the war of 1813-14, having arrived in 1812.
104th Regiment of Foot
1811 - 1851
The King's New Brunswick Regiment of Foot was raised
as a provincial corps in 1793 and was elevated to a
fencible corps in 1799. Many of its members were Loyalists
or sons of Loyalists. It provided the garrison for New
Brunswick when the regular line regiment was withdrawn
for service in the war with France. This regiment was
disbanded in 1802 after the Treaty of Amiens was signed
The New Brunswick Fencible Infantry was raised in 1803
when the war with France was renewed. This Regiment
was elevated to line status as the 104th Regiment of
Foot in 1810. It made a winter march to Canada during
February and March 1813. While there, it was employed
at Sackett's Harbour, Beaver Dams, the blockade of Fort
George, the Battle of Lundy's Lane and the assault on
Fort Erie. The Regiment was disbanded at Montreal on
the 24th May, 1817. Many members of the Regiment received
grants of land along the Upper Saint John River.
The New Brunswick Fencibles was raised in 1813 to replace
the 104th for service in New Brunswick. This unit was
disbanded in 1816.
The Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own)
Appx. 1814, five companies of the 3rd Battalion embarked
for America and took part in the unsuccessful attack
on New Orleans.
The 1st battalion went to Nova Scotia in 1826, and
remained in America until 1836, it went home.
The 2nd battalion went to Nova Scotia in 1842 and to
Canada in 1847. It returned home in 1852. A small supplementary,
or "reserve" battalion, as it was called,
also served in America in 1848-50, being then absorbed
in the 2nd battalion.
The 4th battalion:
25.06.1861 The Service Companies of the 4/60th Rifles
embarked at Liverpool on the S.S. Great Eastern for
04.07.1861 Disembarked at Quebec, Canada East.
08.07.1861 To quarters at the Citadel in Quebec. The
barracks moved into:
...were dark, uncomfortable and unsanitary casements
built under the ramparts, each housing a half Company,
with little ventilation save a row of loopholes for
musketry fire. Imagine a hundred feet of Metropolitan
Underground Railway with one end of it bricked up and
with a door and two windows at the other end; this gives
a fair idea of our quarters. (1925 Rifle Brigade Chronicle
- pp. 229-232)
08.11.1861 The Civil War having broken out between the
North and South in the United States, tensions increased
along the border with Canada, and the Trent Affair (two
Confederate Commissioners were removed from the British
Mail Steamer Trent after being boarded by men of the
USS San Jacinto. As a result, it was decided to further
reinforce the British garrison of Canada
01.04.1863 Battalion began a move to Montreal.
24.05.1863 The Rifles to station at Camp St. Helen’s
01.10.1865 The 4/60th Rifles began a move to London,
Ontario. The 4/60th was first on the roll of the British
Army for musketry for the year 1865 -their figure of
merit was 126.39.
24.11.1865 Fourth Rifles to station at London, Canada
From our guest book
The PCORB served in Canada in the 1840's and again
(both 1st & 4th Battalions) from 1861-1870 as part
of the response to first the Trent difficulties and
then the Fenian problems, and also to train the Canadian
Militia for the aftermath of Confederation. They also
formed the Governor General's and the Government's Honour
Guard at the proclamation of the Dominion of Canada,
1 July 1867, as they were the regular troops assigned
to the Ottawa garrison at that time.
* When two Confederate representatives were forcibly
removed by Union authorities from the British steamer
Trent in 1861, Lincoln released them in response to
British pressure. The Trent Affair, The Illustrated
London News, London, Saturday, December 21, 1861.
There were close to 18,000 British regulars in Canada
during the crisis (6,283 arrived in the first ten weeks
of 1862 in New Brunswick and were transported by sleigh
to their stations). Here are some of the infantry battalion
dispositions in 1863: 2/16 Halifax 2/17 Halifax 1RB
Hamilton 62 London and Quebec 63 London 1/16 Montreal
30 Montreal 47 Montreal 1/15 New Brunswick 1/17 Quebec
In addition, 1 Grenadier Guards and 2 Scots Fusilier
Guards were somewhere in Canada.